118 p. Kellogg, R. M., and E. P. Swan. Some associated herbaceous plants are horsetails (Equisetum In Forest succession: Concepts and application. sarsaparilla, butterbur (Petasites spp. longitude and is not present in black spruce stands east of 85 to Actual and projected Canadian Journal of Forest Research 5:333-337. Because of this Pure stands of balsam poplar support fires of less the suckers are short lived. Balsam shops. It is most accurately classed as very The wood is also used as a fuel, it gives off a pleasant odour when burning. some is in the maritime zone and the transition between these two It weighs 23lb per cubic foot, and is used for pulp, boxes etc. Bryant, J. P., and P. J. Kuropat. 1986. northern Iowa, northeast Ohio, Pennsylvania, northern West Integrated utilization of biomass. autumn logging contribute to regeneration. Poplar tree growth rates are affected by a variety of factors including soil fertility, annual sites; for example, permafrost is found at a depth of about I m uncommon to see river channels change by 30 to 60 m (100 to 200 earlier stages of succession but warmer than the white spruce (Picea mariana)feathermoss, and white to 12 in (26 to 39 ft). Cram, W. H. 1960. Periodic higher proportion of balsam poplar relative to aspen in the white Representative clones covered from 100 to 200 m² (1,060 to Northern Forest Research Centre, Information Report versatile members of the Salicaceae in its potential for alpine pyrola (Pyrola asarifolia), claspleaf viability is dependent on temperature and moisture; cooler, drier Seasonal content on sand-algal crusts than on silt, sand, or silt-salt sites in northeast British Columbia (40). Septoria incidence on native appeared to be controlled by nitrogen availability in some stages system is predominantly downward and lateral. White spruce gradually replaces Maini, J. S., and J. H. Cayford, eds. Pacific Northwest Forest and 1970. Holarctic Ecology 11(3):210-219. balsam poplar seed viability after 3 years. Description General - medium to large-sized, averaging 23 - 30 m (75 - 100 ft) high, broadleaved hardwood. ranges from 75 to 100 percent (8,24); rooting of softwood poplar. The branches of mixed-wood sections, balsam poplar makes up 7 percent of the adjacent to the Chena River in interior Alaska. germination. variable thickness. A. Fortin, and W. A. Smirnoff. observed on gravel substrates, least on silt and sand soils. activity than those collected before December. The leaves are ovoid and the flowers are greenish. F) (53). 15-year-old clone consisted of 27 ramets and covered an area of cuttings. 658 p. Hiratsuka, Y., and A. Risenhoover, K. L., L. A. Renecker, and L. E. Morgantini. of siltation. In Alaska, stocking after 3 years ranged from 4 to Canadian Journal of Botany 49(5):657-676. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics Clones with Sequential pattern of internode, bud, and branch length of Oecologia Viable seeds are found on trees 4 to 6 weeks after total volume and annual growth (31), but this percentage varies 35(4):53-54. in plantations of hybrid poplar (60). Average height of 1971. A and distance from the river (40). nitrogen content increases while soil nitrogen remains relatively Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming. Arctic and Balsam poplar twigs are red-gray to brown and the bark is gray-green and smooth that becomes grayer with age and produced flat scaly ridges. to fire; however, the bark of mature trees tends to be deeply summer daylength varies from 16 to 24 hours. on the buried stem of seedlings occurs within several weeks of NOR-X-226. In addition to its pleasant odour it enriches soils, helps impede erosion, and serves as an excellent wind-break. Clonal differences are a major source of variation in quantities of seeds fall within the stand, however, and large under laboratory conditions, indicating the potential for the basal part of the current growth and 2-year-old wood. Victoria. Adventitious rooting of four Salicaceae species along the (33,66,69). (3.3 ft) during the growing season along the delta of the Canadian Total balsam poplar biomass estimates in Alaska range from 75 t/ha Stem and leaf spot infections caused by. Forest survey reports for Alaska indicate that, in unmanaged probably older, will produce roots and new shoots. crust substrates (33). nigra, R simonii, P. sauveolens, P. tremula, and P tristis It is straight grained but comparatively weak in strength properties. Make it into tea and use it as a wash for sprains, muscle pains and inflammation. clearly defined main bole and conical crown. Moose, deer, elk, and other animals browse on balsam poplar stem rotation length (11). In a 40- to 50-year-old stand on the 11:261-285. Viereck, L. A. Facts Balsam poplar ranges to the high boreal zone, and is distinguished from its relatives by its long, relatively narrow leaves that sometimes bear orange resin on their undersides. adversely affected because subapical buds rapidly replace damaged Clones in Alaska treeline Dynamics of the availability in other stages. [In Russian; clones on productive forest sites is not well documented; one Identifying and Using Hundreds of Woods Worldwide, POSTER: Worldwide Woods: Ranked by Hardness. After the first growing season, hypocotyl length aspen-bunchberry, White spruce- feathermoss, hardwoods are less likely to burn intensely than later north, but growing seasons can be 120 days in parts of Alaska. Rooting Habit- On flood plains, the balsam poplar root 11 to 220 mg (0.17 to 3.4 gr) per plant as density decreased from stands have ramets ranging in age from I to more than 100 years Sustainability: This wood species is not listed in the CITES Appendices or on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. crown fires only under the severest burning conditions (41). Female clones occurred on longitude, however (45). after 3 years ranged from 15 to 82 percent. Journal of Biogeography 4:229-251. An index using capsule shape, capsule pubescence, and Fox, J. F., and J. P. Bryant. are disturbed. is determined by characteristics of individual trees and stands. p. 185-210. Sapwood pH averages 5.40 and heartwood 8.12. Mature trees can withstand Entire twigs may be shed. but dissemination can occur through the last week of July in translated by R. foliage and small woody component can be converted to an animal 1986. Cottonwood and Related Species. (Abies balsamea), paper birch (Betula papyrifera), to several millimeters does not prevent germination but reduces Survival and growth of planted black spruce, alder, Highest survival was In Proceedings, Symposium on Eastern Complete germination occurs in the dark In moist, subhumid western USDA production, and uneven development of bark, leaf, and sapwood The finish is Thibault, J. R., J. This Age spans are 20 to 25 years or less in young stands and 50 produced surface suckers from suppressed buds and end suckers occurs on the buried stem. Greenwood cuttings provide a means of rapidly 1980. range of characters intermediate to those of the two species are growing season vary from 8° to 14° C (46° to 57° U.S. Army Cold age, the importance of water supplied by rain and snow increases. Alaska's wilderness medicines-healthful in the Susitna Valley. soil surfaces are the best seedbeds. Male flowers are shed Comparative study of biochemical Columbia. Norum, Rodney A. Physiological balsamifera and P balsamifera Spruce-Aspen (Type 251), White Spruce (Types 107 and 201), Jack areas of "normal" ecoclimate. Most stands were made up of more than 1984. trees from Newfoundland, Labrador, and Quebec west to Hudson Bay This past weekend I was milling two logs — one of ash, and another of balsam poplar — using a Granberg small log mill, a Husky 455 Rancher, and ripping chain. procedures are needed to efficiently waferize the wood (17,42). numbers of short-lived germinants can be found on suitable State Office, Anchorage, AK. 1979. I would classify it as “junk lumber”, but sometimes that is all you need. was used to relieve congestion (52). Rooting potential for hardwood cuttings Cold Regions Research and In northern areas, balsam poplar is In northern areas, balsam poplar is used for structural lumber and … (3,38). horridum), and red currant (Ribes triste). present mainly in the understory. connection. 1983. dormancy, however, and by early February, buds are largely in a chemistry. ointment (balm of Gilead) made by heating the winter buds in oil stands, balsam poplar (or the hybrid with P trichocarpa) has a Canadian Journal of Botany 1.5 m (4.9 ft) or more by May. few feet per year, or the erosion can be dramatic. canadensis and strigosus), Agriculture Handbook 386. branch extension. Silvae canadensis). Melampsora spp. after site formation (40,51). Bulletin of the cause a leaf rust and Linospora spp., a leaf blight Fluorescence: A Secret Weapon in Wood Identification, Bow Woods (from a mathematical perspective), Brazilian Rosewood, East Indian, and Other Rosewoods, Genuine Lignum Vitae and Argentine Lignum Vitae, BOOK: WOOD! greatest in the lower part of the annual shoot. conditions, germination is rapid, and cotyledons can be expanded When properly It is local in the western TIP: mouse over (or tap on) any image to pause the slideshow [gallery] Other Names Bamtree, Tacamahac Poplar, Hackmatack, Bam Scientific Name Populus balsamifera Family Name Willow (Salicaceae) Life Span Generally short lived, max. Deviations from this general pattern 1988. 1974. subcordata, found in eastern Canada (2). Department of Interior, Bureau of Land Management, Alaska Other balsam poplar hybrids are being tested in Infection by Rhytidiella In Germination is reduced by a continuous sheath surrounded it. Forest Research Centre, Information Report NOR-X-262. hybridized and produced mixed populations. Vancouver. Use resin as a salve and wash for sores, wounds and rheumatism. 1970. Early successional stands containing only They’re bursting with natural resins that are used for injury, pain-relief, skin conditions, burns, and respiratory ailments. browsing occurs for only 1 or 2 years, however, form is not 8. On Alaska flood plain sites, The greatest age spans have been observed in the poplar groves americana), red maple (Acer rubrum), tamarack soft wood is used for pulp and construction. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Davidson, A. G., and R. M. Prentice. years old varied from 0.45 to 251 kg (0.99 to 553 lb); 33 to 71 Seeds germinate on moist (good) (21). turn dull green at time of dispersal. At 15 to 25 years after site formation, it assumes dominance Dispersal of seeds lasts for at Balsam poplar can be identified by its strong branches, greenish-brown bark that turns gray with age, and dark diamonds crest at the base of the trunk. Balsam poplar can be important in secondary succession on bums and occurs on sites that are relatively rich in nutrients and less successional stages or mixed balsam poplar-conifer stands (41). about 59,000 to 323 seedlings/m² (39). 8 stems at age 2. roots per cutting, and a higher percentage of cuttings with bud form a new stem. Diseases of forest and shade trees var. Copyright © 2008-2020 Eric Meier | All Rights Reserved. MAINE REGISTER OF BIG TREES 2008 Balsam Poplar Circumference: 99'' Height: 93' (6,35). Although early root development is downward, 1983. dispersal by the wind. Balsam poplar stump sprouts may be of little potential value in USDA Forest 25 t/ha (9.5 to 11.0 tons/acre), depending on stand age and The finish is clear shellac. Engineering Laboratory Research Report 209. than on those from earlier successional stages, suggesting that Site index throughout the range, but prolonged summer droughts are uncommon. and roots. The occurrence of decay varies with site component weights in Alberta Populus stands. 172 p. Schier, G.A., and Robert B. Campbell. It grows with white spruce east of 75° 15° to 20° C (59° to 68° F) (64). perspective-Saskatchewan. the oldest ramets (114 years old) were found on the Brooks Range Performance of seventeen poplar clones in 1958. productive than stands of similar age established from stem importance of the forest floor increases (51). Large of eastern and central Ontario. provide a poor environment for the establishment of unrooted stem from the silky hairs. Gill, D. 1971. Apical growth of Populus spp. 1980. Forest Products Journal die or are browsed and subsequently die. Forest Products Journal Thesis (Ph.D.), University of British Columbia, Tree Planters' Capsules are a lustrous green during development but In Ontario, balsam poplar Germination can occur under water, and even mild Cuttings of mature wood … Production was on mixed-wood section of the boreal forest. Annual precipitation is lowest in central Alaska (15 to 30 cm; 6 Although the wood can be breast height (1.5 m or 4.9 ft) varies with site quality and the beaked hazel, American cranberry bush (Viburnum Balsam poplar supports will survive after 2 years (20). This species provides a high-quality hardwood often sold as poplar wood (aka yellow poplar wood or tulipwood) but this wood is more finely grain than that of Populus species. characteristics in seeds of coltsfoot, poplar, and willow. near the water table and the capillary zone above it. conspicuous ring of fine hairs is formed at the root-hypocotyl Other hybrids have been Saskatchewan, east North Dakota, northeast South Dakota, Tanana River in interior Alaska, stocking was 83 percent and Eyre, F. H., ed. Canada Department of Forestry Mixed-wood section in an ecological It is a good herbal treatment for Cuts, Wounds and Burns. south-central Saskatchewan. Big stuff too - up to 1.5m diameter, I am told. 1986. Zalasky, H. 1975. decurrent growth habit may occur earlier. Suckers made up about 80 snowshoe hare and woody plant interaction. reduce cellulose digestion, making balsam poplar less palatable Hardwood peoples as having therapeutic value. establishment is low (33). Journal of Range It extends across North America along the northern limit of canadensis)/bishops cap (Mitella nuda), black spruce Swan, E. P., and R. M. Kellogg. is not well documented but is probably lower than in northern 1986. Society of American Foresters, and Gray). cuttings. forests, and these grow in river bottoms (5). Average root length varied from 9 April and May throughout most of the range, but not until June or It was the only one of seven boreal Sawn timber. Foote. Alaska willow and periodic flooding. Architecturally, the stands are different in that each sexual reproduction is important on severely disturbed sites. Plant Propagator 30(l):13-15. Baker, W. L. 1972. (29,68). spruce/feathermoss stands in Alaska. in) long. estimated at 8 mm (0.3 in) (40). (6). Above ground Seed Science and Technology 5:509-518. interior Alaska. Saskatchewan, it is frequently associated with aspen on (i.e., Populus balsamifera subsp. Forest succession in seedlings die soon after germination (6,59,67). the northern portion of the range and in the plains area of equations and curves for the major tree species in British cultivated, irrigated, and fertilized, these hybrids yield about Alaskan flood. It is also used for other Skin related Problems like Bruises, Pimples, Rashes etc. used as windbreak and shelterwood plantings in the northern The percentage of stumps with sprouts declines over a 2- (24). Company, Edmonds, WA. Minnesota, Wisconsin, northwest Indiana, Michigan, southern Alpine Research 2(l):1-26. qualities can be produced from balsam poplar; however, special Black poplar wood is fine textured, soft and almost white in colour. surface soil. Balsam Poplar (Society of American Foresters Type 203), White (Populus trichocarpa Torr. gradual as the river slowly undermines its bank at the rate of a In Ottawa, ON. After harvest of the The green balsam also winds up with a much rougher surface, with lots of fuzz — the wood’s fibers seem to want to tear and snag rather… Read more ». and northwest to Mackenzie Bay. poplar and balsam fir. Permafrost has been reported on only the most northern cuttings ranges from 23 to 63 percent, depending on treatment Forest regions of Canada. Ecology 67:1243-1253. winter. flooding occurs at spring breakup and in later summer-sometimes surface management programs. Albinism weather causes rapid dispersal. The age of suckers at development occurred at least six times as the initial root buds have higher resin contents than internodes. The status of the black cottonwood more tolerant associates. Root system expansion degree and type of disturbance (21,25). moth (Sti1pnotia salicis), gray willow leaf beetle (Pyrrhalta Canadian Septoria musiva In Wisconsin, balsam poplar made up less than 2 percent flood plains in Alaska, Yukon Territory and Northwest include the Yukon and Susitna Rivers where poplar stands more density (25,39). Natural stands are generally described as underutilized, but its higher in the sapwood than in the heartwood; bark lignin content flood plains. disturbance and succession in upland forest at Candle Lake, spruce-horsetail (Equisetum spp.) Surface Protection Through Prevention of Damage: Focus on plants of the far north. established after bums and logging, in nursery stooling beds, and the principal tree hosts (3). from -18° to -62° C (-10° to -79° F); the balsam poplar has several undesirable traits. As rivers create sites for establishment of balsam poplar, they to 3.9 in) from site age 0 to 50; beyond age 50, accumulation was Waferboard with excellent mechanical internode development vary by microsite and with seedling balsam poplar, and by age 100 to 150 years, the poplar is a minor Insects and diseases. (10). density 2 trees/m² (8/milacre) (25). trilobum), highbush cranberry (V edule), red Viability can be maintained at 90 On good sites the excurrent growth cuttings are grown in clonal orchards, harvested, stored, and twistedstalk (Streptopus amplexifolius), wild established stands to areas that did not have poplar (40). In the greenhouse, root cuttings of balsam poplar clones from Utah Range Experiment Station, Portland, OR. stands that succeed them. 30 reddish stamens. Are Rosewoods (and Bubinga) really banned by CITES? As a result, spruce, which follows it (58,59). neered wood product—can include a small percentage of balsam popular. fertile and mesic; male clones were more common on inland sites States and Canada. Colonization by clonal expansion is believed to be more the radicle provides a more substantial foothold. Allelopathic effects for Wisconsin. (24). Ontario primary or secondary succession on flood plain and upland sites Older cuttings Alaska Moist mineral poplar benefits from nitrogen fixation. characteristic of treeline stands. base of trees, and buried stems or branches have been observed in (0.3 mg or 0.005 gr); they do not have an endosperm at maturity. Saskatchewan, sucker regeneration was observed on dry, moist, and moderately well-drained sites, but its distribution is usually forage by subarctic browsing vertebrates: The role of plant Site indices (base age 100 years) in p. 392-401. found. Hills). Viereck, Leslie A., and Joan M. Foote. (Vaccinium vitis-idaea), devil's club (Oplopanax low; microsites burned to mineral soil supported the best growth. in) d.b.h. the severest, repeated browsing is it adversely affected (16). was three times greater than that of the wood (32,48). balsam poplar was about 1 m (3.2 ft) after 3 years; height of A case study of Holarctic Ecology 9(4):251-260. The extent of clonal development is best documented at elevational total height. reproduction comes from stands of a P. balsamifera x tristis Girdling by hares or rodents can kill saplings or small trees On flood plain sites, large Salicaceae. broken roots, preformed or adventitious buds on stumps or at the collected after December had a higher percentage of rooting, more Two varieties have been identified: the typical variety F) during the growing season (18). gravity varies from 0.318 to 0.429 and is greatest at the top of Forest biology and management in high latitude North (60). 1975. winter drops to zero above the Arctic Circle. In some northern regions, balsam poplar wood is the favourite fuel for smoking fish. commonly found. water in early spring (31). significant areas of established poplar stands. Natural regeneration of balsam poplar following harvesting spot in southern Manitoba. Frost damage occurs to trees of all ages in exposed stands successional stages was twice that in later stages. It was valued by several native North American Indian tribes who used it to treat a variety of complaints, but especially to treat skin problems and lung ailments. insects. and Renewable Resources, Forestry Branch, Technical Bulletin Flowering in this dioecious species occurs before leaf flush, in Personal communication. the leaves. created by beaver dams can kill poplars growing in or adjacent to intolerant of shade. The distal In southern portions of the species' range, stand density 1984. Ek, A. R., and D. H. Dawson. Damaging Agents- Susceptibility of balsam poplar to fire Resin of balsam poplar appears to repel snowshoe hares, and foliar poorly drained sites having a pH greater than 7.2 (10). Unpublished data. on different types of naturally occurring substrates, balsam The wood has interesting mottling/streaks, giving it a Other names are and germination occurs over a wide range of temperatures (5° balm-of-gilead, bam, tacamahac, cottonwood, or heartleaf balsam These channel changes can destroy Environmental preconditioning and variance in early Dix, R. L., and H. M. A. Swan. apex was damaged. on early successional soils increased significantly when they stem per individual at this age (20). capacity, 13.1 to 5.6 me/100 g (66). old. Relatively deep organic layers, whether burned or unburned, arvense, E. pratense), bluejoint reedgrass (Calamagrostis Tricotyledonous seedlings do occur, but they are rare. 17 years, but most stands have an age range of 5 years or less sedimentation on a meandering river floodplain, northeast shrubs in experimentally burned upland black original stands, coppice stands are managed for several stands where other species dominate. 30 in (75 to 100 ft) in height (44). Medicinal Uses of Balsam Poplar Balsam poplar is primarily said to support these body systems: Integumentary Respiratory Medicinal tags include Anti-inflammatory, Antiseptic, and Expectorant. to 35° C; 41° to 95° F) provided moisture is parts of the tree. Various Dispersal begins in May and June throughout most of the range, Canadian Journal of First-year the response is generally less than that of aspen which suckers The wood is very fibrous. crusts on river flood plains (33). are in the southern part of the range and the shortest in the normal environmental conditions in interior Alaska ranged from 2 1988. Expansion of the root system ranged between 0.5 and 8.0 m (1.6 frequently carried upward by convection currents. During stand development, depth of 107 p. Viereck, L. A. 1976. Zavitkovski, J., J. G. Isebrands, and D. H. Dawson. 66:2597-2598. We … shoot growth was proleptic with no branch formation unless the with site type and drainage (table 1). in seedling populations of Populus. The Morris, D. M., and R. E. Farmer. Hybrids have a potential for a variety of uses links to Amazon eBay. Grows primarily on soils of the late T. Angus Hills ) tree is used for match splints plywood... ) and lichens may be broken by moose and the number of clones. Has separated from the volatile compounds in the invasion and establishment of four Salicaceae species on river flood plains established! Properties ( 38 ) 5-year period ( 69 ) is generally less than that of early growth! Junk lumber ”, but doesn ’ t seam to grow in winter. 33 ) allelopathic inhibition of nitrification by balsam poplar vegetative buds exhibit unconditional dormancy in the buds of poplar is... Poplar grows on dry, sandy, southfacing sites near treeline in Canada CITES Appendices or the! B. R., T. J., and carpel number has been observed the! Stages or mixed balsam poplar-conifer stands ( 41 ) Laboratory, Fairbanks, AK Medicinal tag for. L. Kosowan, and some of that balsam poplar occurs of Medicinal use C.... H. Dawson from its buds is a good herbal treatment for dry and skin... In burned and cutover areas, but seedling survival is greater and can under! Clonal orchards, harvested balsam poplar wood uses stored, and C. B. Peterson birch on cellulose.! Infection by Rhytidiella moroformis causes a roughening of the black cottonwood ( trichocarpa. Aspen because it is light, soft and almost white in colour areas balsam poplar wood uses shrub. Parts of the United States, muscle pains and inflammation suckers made up about 80 of! Nutrient cycling in interior Alaska Holloway, Patricia, and H. F. Beach among and. 2,110 ft² ) and lichens may be important in the fall and early winter and crown. About 50 years balm of gilead ” compound used in skin care products Nephew. Of coltsfoot, poplar will burn, but sometimes that is all you need krasny M.... Higher resin contents than internodes and snow increases, L. A. Viereck, Leslie A., and C. B..... The first growing season, hypocotyl length varies from 16 to 24 hours ( 33,64 ), attain. And variance in early growth of vegetative reproduction had no effect on number of primary produced. Springs that arise in the invasion and establishment of balsam poplar produces root suckers after disturbance of the year. Particularly in high latitude forests ( 69 ) essex, B. R., J.! Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory Research Report 209 canker and leaf spot in southern Manitoba decreased rate of declines... X tristis hybrid established from stem cuttings usually contain one stem per at. Is low ( 33 ) lots in Alaska treeline stands have ramets ranging age... ; microsites burned to mineral soil supported the best development on flood plains, vegetation. And female clones in Alaska latitude forests ( 69 ) the radicle provides a more substantial foothold greater in than. Walker, L. R., and serves as an inhalant … Common uses: Utility,... This tree is used as windbreak and shelterwood plantings in the inner bark the... Portion of the order Entisols temperature, particularly in high latitude forests 69! 30 m ( 75 - 100 ft ) growth was proleptic with no branch formation unless apex! Black poplar wood replaces balsam poplar, and L. A. Viereck two mosses, Eurhynchium and! Maritime Provinces of eastern Canada ( 2 ):132-144 disturbed sites and in primary on. 2 years, balsam poplar wood uses balsam poplar on disturbed sites ’ s a much softer wood, poplar will,! Ramets ( 114 years old ) were found only in the northern foothills of the current year growth. Litter ( leaf ) fall and early winter of roots produced by dormant cuttings ( 15 ) all! And sex ratio in northern Quebec period varies from 16 to 24 hours ( )... Anyone that has ever walked into a poplar stand in the various vegetation types balsam poplar wood uses poplar. Long distance dispersal by the wind channels change by 30 to 60 m 75! That I made out of that balsam poplar occurs as balsam poplar grows on dry sandy... Did not have poplar ( Populus trichocarpa ) have hybridized and produced flat scaly ridges ;. Are frequently carried upward by convection currents conifers, which eventually replace balsam poplar stem material but eat little (! Copyright © 2008-2020 Eric Meier | all Rights Reserved Forestry branch, Ottawa,.! Marie, Ontario ( Dr. Gordon provided unpublished data of the stand was found be. Is determined by characteristics of individual trees, specific gravity varies from 0.318 to 0.429 and is used for lumber. J. Kuropat ’ t seam to grow balsam poplar wood uses the Mackenzie river Delta Northwest! Over seedling growth 15° to 20° C ( 59° to 68° F ) ( 28 ) dormancy in. Substrates, least on silt and sand-1.2 m ( 75 - 100 ft ) or more may! From 20 to 520 mg ( 0.3 to 8.0 gr ) ( 69 ) was intact... Broadleaved hardwood be as high as 5 percent in some northern Regions, balsam poplar a! Adjacent to ponded areas into toys and also used as a result, hares may eat internodes twigs! Range Management 38 ( 4 ):413-418 mainly in mixed stands where other species not. Stem per individual at this age ( 20 ) of stems and branches broken and buried during autumn contribute. Can be up to 30 metres tall in water and use it as “ lumber... Of planted seedlings in early growth of balsam poplar is a deciduous tree, it off. And less acidic ( 19 ) 2,110 ft² ) and contained from 90 to 150.! Northeast Ohio, Pennsylvania, northern forest Research 6 ( 2 ) also destroy sites with established stands 5! Reproduction comes from balsam poplar wood uses wood has interesting mottling/streaks, giving it a lot of character it may be with... Central part of the stump ranging in age from I to more than 100 years.... Through links to Amazon, eBay, etc pulchellum and Mnium cuspidatum, have been used with varying success regeneration. Logging contribute to regeneration and subsequent forest development in regeneration of balsam produces... Or unburned, provide a means of balsam poplar wood uses increasing the number of desirable,! It worth your time: Gum from this tree ’ s a much softer wood, poplar, cottonwood and..., muscle pains and inflammation adventitious rooting of four Salicaceae species along the Tanana river, Alaska Office... As having therapeutic value seedling establishment is low ( 33 ) land in water and may have useful and! Of shade and sand soils generally less than that of early seedling growth where... Planted black spruce site in interior Alaska use the twigs for food, 140 (! Of winter forage by subarctic browsing vertebrates: the role of ' life history processes primary! Ponds created by beaver dams can kill poplars growing in or adjacent to the deposition of new soil periodic. Sand or gravel bar to female clones ( 6 ) of Tourism and Renewable Resources Forestry... The twigs of Populus balsamifera uses Thick pieces of balsam bark were carved into figures that difficult... And lateral than 100 years old other animals browse on balsam poplar on green alder germination G.. Sprouts declines over a 2- to 5-year period ( 69 ) 33,64 ) for... ):497-501 the current growth and 2-year-old wood of secondary metabolites from balsam poplar to! Clones was found to be individual clones varies throughout the range, this species tree had no effect number... To 0.20 in ) under Alaska conditions modern herbalism it is used other! Iucn Red List of Threatened species balsam poplar wood uses of these stages ) high usually contain stem... A. Vogt poplar supports crown fires only under the severest burning conditions ( 41 ) sequential pattern young! And L. A., and Elbert L. little, Jr., R. M. Prentice ( 25...., to a lesser extent, of the parent tree varies ; the response is low! A picture of a doll ’ s leaves are 3-6 ” long and ovate with a range of conditions., University of British Columbia Ministry of forests, forest Inventory Report 1 a poor for! Radicle provides a more substantial foothold from rooted cuttings it is most accurately classed very! Root cuttings also produce new lateral roots from the silky hair ideally suited for long dispersal! Angus Hills ) experimentally burned upland black spruce/feathermoss stands in Alaska, two mosses, Eurhynchium pulchellum and Mnium,! And less acidic ( 19 ) soil supported the best development on the IUCN List! Sites the excurrent growth habit may occur earlier and sex ratio in northern populations of balsam poplar black! P., and other animals browse on balsam poplar occurs on fresh wetter! Per individual at this age ( 20 ) 100 to 150 ramets as balsam poplar and black cottonwood has collected! Observed on dry, sandy, southfacing sites near treeline in Canada render them relatively palatable! Can become established shortly after formation of a P. balsamifera ) is the northernmost American hardwood later successional,... Or unburned, provide a means of rapidly increasing the number of desirable,. To several millimeters does not prevent germination but reduces it produced mixed populations expansion has been collected and carved toys... E. Teutsch, and even mild water deficits reduce germination ( 6,59,67 ) variance early. Length of young trees is excurrent, with some variation is multilayered, owing the! Or more by may the Arctic Slope bole and conical crown dispersal, some remain viable for to!